York, Richard. 2007. Structural Inﬂuences on Energy Production in South and East Asia, 1971–2002. Sociological Forum, Vol. 22, No. 4, December.
To address questions about the environmental consequences of globalization
and modernization, I estimate the effects of a variety of structural factors on energy production in 14 nations of South and East Asia, which contain more than half the world’s population, using panel data covering the period 1971–2002. My results suggest that energy production is signiﬁcantly inﬂuenced by a variety of structural factors, including economic development, urbanization, export intensity, and debt service. Consistent with the arguments of theorists of the political economy of the world-system, I ﬁnd compelling evidence that modernization and integration into the global economy contribute to natural resource exploitation.
KEY WORDS: ecology; energy; environment; environmental Kuznets curve; modernization;