York, Richard. 2006. Demographic trends and energy consumption in European Union Nations, 1960–2025. Social Science Research 36 (2007) 855–87.
We analyze data for fourteen foundational European Union Nations covering the period
1960–2000 to estimate the eﬀects of demographic and economic factors on energy consumption.
We ﬁnd that population size and age structure have clear eﬀects on energy consumption. Economic
development and urbanization also contribute substantially to changes in energy consumption. We
use the resultant model to project energy consumption for the year 2025 based on demographic and
economic projections to assess the implications of various demographic scenarios. The projections
suggest that the expected decline of population growth in Europe will help curtail expansion in
Keywords: Environmental demography; Environmental Kuznets curve; Energy consumption; Population decline; STIRPAT