Chertow, Marion. 2001. "The IPAT Equation and Its Variants: Changing Views of Technology and Environmental Impact." Journal of Industrial Ecology 4:13-29.
In the early 1970s Ehrlich and Holdren devised a simple equation in dialogue with Commoner identifying three factors that created environmental impact. Thus, impact (I) was expressed as the product of (1) population, (P); (2) affluence, (A); and (3) technology, (T). This article tracks the various forms the IPAT equation has taken over 30 years as a means of examining an underlying shift among many environmentalists toward a more accepting view of the role technology can play in sustainable development. Although the IPAT equation was once used to determine which single variable was the most damaging to the environment, an industrial ecology view reverses this usage, recognizing that increases in population and affluence can, in many cases, be balanced by improvements to the environment
offered by technological systems.