Research Team





























IPAT Bibliography

These are research papers that use the IPAT or Kaya formulation to examine the anthropogenic driving forces of environmental change. IPAT was the intellectual starting point for STIRPAT. Kaya is an equivalent formulation prominent in the climate change community.

Bongaarts, John. 1992. "Population Growth and Global Warming." Population and Development Review18:299-319.

Chertow, Marion. 2001. "The IPAT Equation and Its Variants: Changing Views of Technology and Environmental Impact." Journal of Industrial Ecology 4:13-29.

Commoner, Barry, Michael Corr and Paul J. Stamler. 1971. "The Causes of Pollution." Environment 13:2-19.

Commoner, Barry. 1972. "A Bulletin Dialogue on 'The Closing Circle': Response." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 28(5): 17, 42-56.

Commoner, Barry. 1972. "The Environmental Cost of Economic Growth." Pp. 339-363 in R.G. Ridker (ed.).Population, Resources and the Environment. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

DeHart, Jennifer L. and Peter T. Soulé. 2000. "Does I=PAT Work in Local Places?" Professional Geographer 52:1-10.

Ehrlich, Paul R. and John P. Holdren. 1970. "The People Problem." Saturday Review 53(27):42.

Ehrlich, Paul R. and John P. Holdren. 1970. "Hidden Effects of Overpopulation." Saturday Review 53(31):52.

Ehrlich, Paul R. and John P. Holdren. 1971. "Impact of Population Growth." Science 171:1212-1217.

Ehrlich, Paul R. and John P. Holdren. 1972. "A Bulletin Dialogue on 'The Closing Circle': Critique." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 28(5):16, 18-27.

Holdren, John. 1991. "Population and the Energy Problem." Population and Environment 12:231-255.

Holdren, John P. and Paul R. Ehrlich. 1974. "Human Population and the Global Environment." American Scientist 62:282-292.

Holdren, John P. 2000. "Environmental Degradation: Population, Affluence, Technology, and Sociopolitical Factors - response to an article by Robert Kates. Environment. April.

*Kaya, Y. 1990. Impact of Carbon Dioxide Emission Control on GNP Growth: Interpretation of Proposed Scenarios. Paris: IPCC Energy and Industry Subgroup, Response Strategies Working Group.

*Kaya, Yoichi. 1990. "Impact of Carbon Dioxide Emission Control GNP Growth: Interpretation of Proposed Scenarios." In IPCC Energy and Industry Subgroup,  Response Strategies Working Group. Paris.

*Kaya, Yoichi and Keiichi Yokobori. 1997. Environment, Energy, and Economy: Strategies for Sustainability. Tokyo & New York: Unitied Nations University Press.

Keyfitz, Nathan. 1991. "Population and Development within the Ecosphere: One View of the Literature."Population Index 57:5-22.

Mazur, Allan. 1994. "How Does Population Growth Contribute to Rising Energy Consumption in America?"Population and Environment 15:371-378.

Schulze, P.C. 2002. "I=PAT." Ecological Economics 40:149-150.

Waggoner, Paul E. and Jesse H. Ausubel. 2002. "A Framework for Sustainability Science: A Renovated IPAT Identity." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 99:7860-7865.
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*A version of the  IPAT identity is also used in work on greenhouse gas emissions, where it is known as the Kaya identity. The two literatures have developed independently but have an identical logic underpinning them.